Planning and Management Resources Focused Outside of Florida

You will need Adobe Reader to view many of these publications.

Research and Refereed Journal Articles

  • An urban forest sustainability model considers the character of the vegetation resource, community awareness of, and attitudes about, urban forests, and the management programs for the resource. Results from 25 U.S. cities were evaluated using the 20 criteria and four levels of performance found in the model.
    Clark, J. R. and N. P. Matheny. 1998. A model of urban forest sustainability: Application to cities in the United States. Journal of Arboriculture 24(2): 112-120. [PDF]
  • The utilization of computer systems over manual files for managing urban street trees has many advantages. Unnecessary extra data collection and lack of regularly updating files with information from the field are two potential challenges managers need to take into consideration when using computer files.
    Crossen, T. I. 1989. The management of urban street trees using computerized inventory systems. Journal of Arboriculture 15(1): 1-6. [PDF]
  • Research on ecological restoration, adaptive management, and support of the care of trees will be emphasized in the future. Additional information is needed on resource inventory and monitoring, collaboration among agencies, and dissemination of information about urban forests to stake holders.
    Dwyer, J. F., D. J. Nowak, and G. W. Watson. 2002. Future directions for urban forestry research in the United States. Journal of Arboriculture 28 (5): 231–236. [PDF]
  • To create sustainable urban forests, managers must consider the needs and attitudes of a community and reassess the urban forest structure for changes over time. The dynamics, diversity, and connectedness of the urban forest influence the management of urban forests.
    Dwyer, J. F., D. J. Nowak, and M. H. Noble. 2003. Sustaining urban forests. Journal of Arboriculture 29(1): 49-55. [PDF]
  • Explanations of a variety of social, psychological, and cultural needs that trees and forests provide to citizens. Understanding citizen's values will assist managers in creating a successful urban forestry program.
    Dwyer, J., H. Schroeder, and P. Gobster. 1991. The significance of urban trees and forests: towards a deeper understanding of values. Journal of Arboriculture 17(10): 276–284. [PDF]
  • A review of city tree managers' responses to funds spent on street trees, to differences in street tree management, and to changes in tree species planted over time. Emphasis on the Global ReLeaf program to reduce carbon emissions and legislative action as items to positively influence urban forestry.
    Kielbaso, J. J. 1990. Trends and issues in city forests. Journal of Arboriculture 16(3): 69-76. [PDF]
  • Equations were used to quantify Davis, California's canopy cover at 5% with an average of 14% cover over streets and sidewalks.
    Maco, S. E. and E. G. McPherson. 2002. Assessing canopy cover over streets and sidewalks in street tree populations. Journal of Arboriculture 28(6): 270-6. [PDF]
  • Small communities can determine structural characteristics and assess environmental benefits of their street tree population using growth data and benefits from a nearby city.
    Maco, S. E. and E. G. McPherson. 2003. A practical approach to assessing structure, function, and value of street tree populations in small communities. Journal of Arboriculture 29(2): 84-97. [PDF]
  • Populations of flying-foxes were not effected by fragmentation of habitat and foraging areas. Foxes were more likely to be found in park trees than isolated street trees.
    McDonald-Madden, E., E. S. G. Schreiber, D. M. Forsyth, D. Choquenot, and T. F. Clancy. 2005. Factors affecting grey-headed flying-fox (Pteropus poliocephalus: Pteropodidae) foraging in the Melbourne metropolitan area, Australia. Austral Ecology 30(5): 600-608. [PDF]
  • The ecological view in urban forestry evolved from diverse roots beginning over 100 years ago and is currently expressed in formal programs of research and practice. Among the most useful concepts in urban forest ecology are structure, function, diversity, dominance, mosaic-gradients, and ecosystems.
    Rowntree, R.A. 1998. Urban Forest Ecology: Conceptual Points of Departure. Journal of Arboriculture 24(2): 62-71. [PDF]
  • An overview of types of data collected in a tree inventory and the potential benefits of including this in management plans.
    Smiley, E. T. and F. A. Baker. 1988. Options in street tree inventories. Journal of Arboriculture 14(2): 36-42. [PDF]
  • Change in program priorities, improved community outreach, and more efficient programs are a few uses of street tree inventory data.
    Tate, R. L. 1985. Uses of street tree inventory data. Journal of Arboriculture 11(7): 210-13. [PDF]
  • A description of ways soil and construction together can harm tree roots.
    Wray, P. 2003. Soil, roots, and construction: a deadly combination. Journal of Forestry 101(3): 4-4. [PDF]

Cooperative Extension and Government Publications

  • A volunteer manual to assist in recruiting volunteers to do tree inventories.
    Bloniarz, D. V. (Ed). 1998. Volunteer Training Manual. Amherst MA: University of Massachusetts and USDA Forest Service, Northeast Center for Urban & Community Forestry. [PDF]
  • Step-by-step instructions on how to complete an urban forestry management plan. A sample plan is provided.
    Northeast Center for Urban & Community Forestry. no date. A Guide: Developing a Street and Park Tree Management Plan. V. 10. Amherst MA: University of Massachusetts. [Link]
  • Benefits and costs for representative small, medium, and large deciduous trees and coniferous trees in the Northeast region derived from models based on in-depth research carried out in the borough of Queens, New York City are presented. Average annual net benefits (benefits minus costs) increase with mature tree size and differ based on location: $5 (yard) to $9 (public) for a small tree, $36 (yard) to $52 (public) for a medium tree, $85 (yard) to $113 (public) for a large tree, $21 (yard) to $33 (public) for a conifer.
    McPherson, E.G., J.R. Simpson, P.J. Peper, S.L. Gardner, K.E. Vargas, and Q. Xiao. 2007. Northeast Community Tree Guide: Benefits, Costs, and Strategic Planting. PSW-GTR-202. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. [Link]
  • Benefits and costs for representative small, medium, and large trees in the Tropical region derived from models based on in-depth research carried out in Honolulu, Hawaii. Average annual net benefits (benefits minus costs) increase with mature tree size and differ based on location: $9 (public) to $30 (yard) for a small tree, $43 (public) to $79 (yard) for a medium tree, $70 (public) to $92 (yard) for a large tree.
    Vargas, K.E., E.G. McPherson, J.R. Simpson, P.J. Peper, S.L. Gardner, K.E. Vargas, and Q. Xiao. 2008. Tropical Community Tree Guide: Benefits, Costs, and Strategic Planting. PSW-GTR-216. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. [PDF]
  • Data indicates urban sprawl negatively influences urban forests. Approximately 78% of urban forestry departments in the South were created within the last ten years.
    Watson, W. T. 2006.  State of Urban Forestry in the South: Final Report. Texas A&M University, Department of Forest Science. [PDF]
  • Results show that 29% to 84% of the pollutants were removed, depending upon type and size of the rainfall event, soil type, and pollutant concentration.
    Xiao, Q. and E.G. McPherson. 2008.  Urban Runoff Pollutants Removal of Three Engineered Soils. Davis CA: University of California, Hydrologic Sciences, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources. [PDF]

Return to top

Books, Dissertations, Reports, and Theses

  • Factors involved in the management of the urban forest including ownership, composition, monetary value, and education are discussed.
    Grey, G. W. and F. J. Deneke. 1986. Urban Forestry. Second Edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. ISBN 0471088137
  • A wide variety of topics including, but not limited to, urban forest history, planning and design, community involvement, and systematic management. The purpose of the book is to serve as a resource for increasing our knowledge in areas less familiar.
    Kuser, J. E., Ed. 2000. Handbook of Urban and Community Forestry in the Northeast. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. ISBN 0306461617
  • Chapters cover the nature and history of the urban forest and assessing and managing its resources.
    Miller, R. 1997. Urban Forestry: Planning and Managing Urban Greenspaces. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0139396209
  • A compilation of articles covering a wide spectrum, of urban forestry from calculating the economic worth of a tree to how to build a citizen action program.
    Moll, G. and S. Ebenreck, Eds. 1989. Shading Our Cities: A Resource Guide for Urban and Community Forests. Washington D.C.: Island Press. ISBN 0933280963
  • A review of the benefits of the urban forest to a community, how to create a municipal street tree master plan, objectives of a street tree inventory, and basic tree care guidelines.
    Phillips, L. E. Jr. 1993. Urban Trees: A Guide for Selection, Maintenance, and Master Planning. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. ISBN 0070498350
  • A review of governmental and privately run programs throughout the nation surveyed. Successful programs may be hindered by lack of long-term maintenance programs and flexibility to modify conservation and preservation efforts.
    Ratliff, J. D. 1991. Lessons Learned from 13 Street Tree Programs that Work. MS thesis, University of Arizona.

Return to top

General Articles

  • Urban greenery can bring better health, more attractive neighborhoods, and even safer streets. An overview of Boston's urban forest.
    Lord, C. 2008. "Seeing the Forest and the Trees". CommonWealth [Boston MA] 13(4): 79-83. [PDF]